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History 2

By Steven Runciman

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Read or Download A History of the Crusades 3 Volume Paperback Set: A History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187 A History of the Crusades, Vol 2 PDF

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Those knights have paid the expenses of those to paigns on the Scottish and Welsh Borders the full quota was still called for. The and town levies were usually referred to and from now on they will be called by this name. shire 'Militia', as the CRUSADER WARFARE The major military undertaking of the twelfth century was the Land from the infidels. new enemy taught the Christians many fresh techniques, not least of them a new way of fighting. The early medieval army, unless exceptionally large, was drawn crusades the attempt to win back the Holy : Contact with a up on the line of march in three groups called guard, the main guard, and the rear-guard.

Later, a system of small differences was devised to distinguish younger sons and branches of great families. They, and even unrelated but dependent families, would adopt variations of the main device with additions or in different colours. Heraldic differences In the second half of this century knights began to wear a loose flowing linen garment over their hauberks. tube, caught on the shoulders, belted half-way up at front and back so that the saddle. Occasionally These 'gowns' as it had they were It was shaped like a and slit almost on either side of at the waist it fell easily short, or even cuff-length, sleeves.

An important development, at the end of this century, was the number of knights required from each baron reduction in the continental campaigns in return for a service. Richard 1 waged a series much for longer period of of campaigns in France for which an army of knights serving for only forty days would have been quite unsuitable. but for officers He hired mercenaries from Wales and Brabant, and heavy cavalry he needed knights, and these he got by asking his tenants-in-chief to serve for longer periods, each who stayed at home seem who served.

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