Download A Reference Grammar of Pashto by Habibullah Tegey - Barbara Robson PDF
By Habibullah Tegey - Barbara Robson
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There is thus a justification in having a special rule for the negation. Note that an alternative solution one might think of, viz. considering ka a negative copula in sentences like (84), will obviously not do. First, we would then have to deal with two homophonous ka, depending whether the negated predicate is verbal or nominal. e. , would be i ka na sedu lyon 'It won't be a lion'. Such sequences as *i ka na lyon or *i na ka lyon are totally excluded. With ka a verb, part of the ordering problem raised above simply vanishes.
G. ) (25) VP → H[n], PP (tarda) 28 KRIYOL SYNTAX On the other hand, it seems clear that skola in (22) cannot be taken extensionally as a term referring to an object-of-the-world, but must be understood as an intensional generic designator (the school as an institution). With 'ordinary' verbs like bay 'go' as in n bay skola 'I went to (the) school', in contrast, there is a potential ambiguity between both interpretations, which cannot be resolved by the presence of a determiner as in English. Similar remarks could be made about the interpretation of fugu in (21) or of the understood object of pudi in (20) — necessarily some process requiring physical or mental exertion.
17 It is clearly not one, in contrast, in (42) where it stands in the commanding initial position of sentential adverbs: (42) Yar i bindi si karu. ' Compare (42) with the 'decreolized' version kwas i bindi si karu lit. 18 In (42), yara could not be substituted for yar, which suggests that only the latter can (but need not) be used as a 'deep' alternative form of sentence-initial kwas, probably because of its 'unverbal' outlook. ) (45) VP[-SUBJ,+FIN,+AUX] → H[y], S[AGR NP] (jumna) (46) VP[-SUBJ, +FIN] → H[n],W (47) VP → H[l] (durmi 'sleep') (48) VP → H, NP (kume 'eat') (49) VP → H, NP, NP (pista 'lend') Note that I do not use integers to mark the subcategorization features of aspectual auxiliaries and Ad-verbs, but rather the letters [x] and [y] since their complements are VPs headed by any verbs including themselves.